Imaging technique can detect aortic aneurysms early
An international research team has found that Raman microspectroscopy and Raman imaging can identify aneurysm-specific signs in elastic and collagen fibres of the aorta — a breakthrough that could save many lives.
Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (aTAAs) occur when the walls of the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body, weaken and begin to bulge. This can result in rupture or dissection (a tear in the aortic wall), leading to life-threatening bleeding and death. Sometimes these complications can occur before any symptoms of the aneurysm appear.
The risk of aTAA is usually assessed by monitoring enlargement of the lumen, the interior space of the aorta. There are no known cardiovascular biomarkers for aortic aneurysms, and changes to the components surrounding the cells (known as the extracellular matrix, or ECM) are not routinely monitored. Changes to the ECM are thought to be involved in the development of aortic aneurysms, because these are commonly seen when there are genetic mutations affecting the ECM. It seems likely that cellular and extracellular (taking place outside of cells) changes to the vessel wall are involved as aneurysms develop.
Now an international team, led by Hiromi Yanagisawa from the University of Tsukuba and Katja Schenke-Layland from the Eberhard Karl University of Tübingen, have used Raman microspectroscopy — an analysis technique that uses Raman scattering to probe the structure of atoms and molecules — and Raman imaging to identify signatures in the fibres of the aortic wall that indicate the presence of an aneurysm. Their work has been published in the journal Cell Reports Medicine.
The research team used both a mouse model of aTAA and human samples to examine the structural and molecular signatures in the aorta. Raman imaging can be used on structures in the body without causing harm and can distinguish different components in tissues by detecting different molecular vibrations. This allowed the team to detect changes to the aortic wall that are characteristic of aneurysms.
“Specific elastic fibre-derived components and collagen fibre-derived components were significantly increased in aTAA lesions in both mice and humans,” said co-lead authors Kaori Sugiyama and Julia Marzi, from the Universities of Tsukuba and Tübingen respectively. “These human aneurysm-specific marker signatures in the elastic and collagen fibres can be used as biomarkers for aTAA diagnosis.”
These techniques enabled the identification of minor alterations in the ECM structure, meaning they may be used as a diagnostic tool to identify early changes on the aortic wall, known as pre-aneurysmal lesions. Given that aneurysms can sometimes develop undetected until they cause significant complications, the ability to detect them sooner could save many lives.
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